Profitability and Cost Estimates for Producing Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) in South Florida (2024)

Trent Blare, Fredy H. Ballen, Aditya Singh, Nicholas Haley, and Jonathan Crane

Profitability and Cost Estimates for Producing Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) in South Florida (1)


Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) is a member of the Anacardiaceae family and is native to the Indo-Burmese region in Southeast Asia. Mango can be grown in very diverse climatic conditions including tropical and subtropical regions. The largest mango producers in the world are India, Pakistan, Philippines, Mexico, and Thailand, respectively (Crane et. al. 2020). The United States has limited domestic mango production, with most of the commercial production taking place in California, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Florida (WIFSS 2016). The largest mango exporters to US markets are Mexico, Philippines, and Thailand.

Mangos were first successfully introduced in south Florida in 1889, when the USDA imported grafted trees from Bombay (Morton 1987). After World War II, the USDA was interested in significantly expanding Florida mango production. They invested in mango plantings and research conducted at the University of Florida and the University of Miami (Goldweber 1967). However, because of several factors such as poor marketing, quality issues, and foreign competition, the Florida mango industry never took off.

In Florida, commercial mango production takes place in the southern part of the state, specifically Miami-Dade, Lee, and Palm Beach Counties, where 2672 acres are dedicated to crop according to the 2017 agricultural census (USDA-NSS 2018). There are two major types of mangos grown in Florida, Indian, and Indochinese (Crane et. al. 2020). Florida’s mono-embryonic varieties are primarily derived from the Indian type, and the poly-embryonic varieties from Indochinese type (Mossler and Crane 2013). In Florida, the harvest season extends from May to September, and average yield for a mature tree (5 years and older) ranges from 220 to 330 pounds, depending on the cultivar, planting density, and cultural practices employed (Crane et. al. 2020).

Traditional commercial mango varieties grown in south Florida include ‘Tommy Atkins’, ‘Keitt’, ‘Palmer’, ‘Van Dyke’, and ‘Kent’. A diversity of mango cultivars has started to be grown on a small to moderate scale that address the green, home processed, and high quality unique-flavored fresh fruit markets. With an average planting density of 80 trees per acre, there are approximately 213,760 trees in south Florida. Based on the previous assumptions (average tree yield of 275 lb., and 213,760 trees), mango production in Florida may reach an estimated 58.8 million pounds annually. Growers reported an 85% average pack out rate and an average F.O.B. price (price leaving the packinghouse) of $0.41/pound. Therefore, the crop is estimated to be worth about $20.49 million. However, potential exists for this market to grow as internet sales have become a viable and potentially lucrative alternative to the traditional outlets.

Because of the growing interest in the profitability of alternative tropical fruit crops like mango, this publication provides an estimate of the costs and returns associated with an established mango orchard in south Florida. Information in this publication will be useful to current and future mango growers, wholesalers, and processors. The data for this analysis were collected through field interviews in 2017 with several growers and industry specialists, and thus the analysis covers a wide range of production practices. The growers interviewed operate small mango groves ranging from 3 to 6 acres. This publication is intended only as a guide to estimate the financial aspects of operating an established mango grove. Readers interested in specific information about the cultural practices of mango may want to consult Mango Growing in the Florida Home Landscape.

Main Assumptions

The estimates included in this analysis are based on a one-acre orchard (on a per-year basis). Because of the wide variability in cultural practices followed by the interviewed growers, we reported an average of their costs and returns for this analysis.

Orchard Layout For this analysis, we assumed mango trees are planted 15-20 feet apart within rows and 27.5 feet between rows, resulting in a planting density of 80 trees per acre.

Yield —Assuming a planting density of 80 trees per acre, an average yield from a matured tree (5 years and older) of about 275 pounds, and a fruit pack-out rate of 85%, the average marketable yield would be about 18,700 pounds per acre per year.

Mango Prices — The average F.O.B. (Homestead) price for mango is estimated at $0.41 per pound. This value is the simple average of the prices that the growers interviewed received from the packing houses in 2017 after subtracting harvest and marketing costs.

Irrigation Supplemental irrigations during very prolonged dry periods are beneficial to plant growth and crop yields (Crane et. al. 2020). Average irrigation expense, which is comprised of fuel or electricity cost, is estimated at $99/acre/year.

Fertilization Fertilizer treatments for full-production trees (5 years or older) include applications of 6-6-6-2 percent fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphate, potash, magnesium (N-P-K-Mg), soil drench applications of chelated iron, and minor element foliar sprays (Crane et. al. 2020). Average fertilization costs (materials only) are estimated at $415/acre/year.

Pest Management There are no major diseases affecting mangoes in south Florida. There are some fungal diseases that may cause minor damage in mangoes, including powdery mildew (Oidiumsp.), and anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Weed management practices include herbicide applications, hand weeding, and mulching. Mangoes have relatively few insect pests, including several scale species such as pyriform scales and the Florida red scale (Crane et. al. 2020). Average agrochemical costs (materials only) are estimated to be $200/acre/year for fungicides, $122/acre/year for herbicides, and $110/acre/year for insecticides.

Labor Costs These costs include the application of fertilizers, agrochemicals, and other cultural operations costs like irrigation, pruning, mowing, and other activities. Labor costs are estimated to be $400/acre/year.

Interest on Operating Capital This cost is for borrowing money or the opportunity cost for using equity. In this analysis, we used a 5% interest rate, which would translate into the cost of interest on operating capital of $67/year.

Fixed Costs These costs are incurred by the growers even if no fruit is produced. They include cash overhead, non-cash overhead, and other overhead costs. The cash overhead costs (e.g., insurance and taxes) are estimated to be $200 per acre; non-cash overhead costs (e.g., land rent) are estimated to be about $500 per acre. Although nearly all the south Florida growers own the land for the orchards they manage, we included the prevailing rental rate in south Florida to estimate the opportunity cost for the land occupied by the orchard. Other overhead costs (e.g., the depreciation of tractors, sprayers, and other machinery; electricity; and telephone, computer, and other office expenses) are estimated at $400 per acre.

Harvesting and Marketing Costs — The Florida mango season runs from May to September, but the main fruit-bearing period varies with the cultivar. For example, for the ‘Keitt’ cultivar, the harvest season is from August through September, and for the ‘Florigon’ cultivar, the harvest season is from May to July (Crane et. al. 2020). The cost for picking, packing, and marketing mango is estimated to be $667/acre/year.

Cost Analysis

Figure 2 illustrates the share of each of the costs by category. Cultural costs (variable costs for hired labor, irrigation, fertilization, and pest control) are estimated to be 42% of the total cost; followed by fixed or overhead costs accounting for 35% of total cost; then harvest and marketing costs, which constitute 21% of the total cost; and finally interest on capital, which constitutes 2% of the total cost.

Profitability and Cost Estimates for Producing Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) in South Florida (2)

Cultural Costs The major components of these costs are fertilizers (29%), labor (28%), fungicides (14%), and herbicides (9%). These costs are estimated to be $1,413 (about $0.08 per pound).

Fixed Costs — These costs, including the land rental rate, are estimated to be $1100/acre/year ($0.06/pound).

Harvest and Marketing Costs These include costs associated with picking, packing, and marketing of the fruit. They represent 21% of the total production cost. Mangos are generally picked at maturity. The fruit is considered matured when the shoulders and the nose (the end of the fruit away from the stem) of the fruit broaden (fill out). Varieties that have color when ripe may have a slight blush of color development, or they may have begun to change color from green to yellow. Prior to this peel color break, the fruit is considered mature when the flesh near the seed changes color from white to yellow. (Crane et. al. 2020). Harvest and marketing costs are estimated to be $667/acre/year ($0.04/pound).

Returns and Profitability Analysis

Table 1 shows that the total cost to produce and market one acre of mango is estimated to be $3,180/acre/year ($0.17/pound). Based on an average marketable yield of 18,700 pounds/acre and an average F.O.B Homestead price (at the packinghouse) of $0.41/pound, the total receipt or gross revenue is estimated to be $7,667/acre/year.

Subtracting total variable costs (total cultural costs, interest on capital, and harvesting and marketing cost) from total revenue, we obtain a gross margin of $5,587/acre/year, or $0.30/pound. The gross margin provides a useful indicator of short-term profitability. A positive gross margin implies that all variable costs have been covered by the income generated and that additional funds remain to cover some or all fixed costs.

A negative gross margin implies that a business is not viable in the short term, and changes are required to continue operations. Many growers are only concerned with the gross margin. However, while the gross margin provides an indication of return for the grower, it does not include fixed costs and, hence, is not a true reflection of the long-term financial viability of the farm.

Net return is obtained by subtracting the fixed cost from the gross margin, and it is used to measure the long-term profitability of the farming operation. The data in table 1 show that the net return for an established mango orchard is $4,487/acre/year or $0.24/pound, which is an attractive net return compared to other tropical fruit crops in the area.

Table 1. Estimated annual return per acre from mango production in south Florida.

Sensitivity Analysis

Table 2 presents a sensitivity analysis based on gross margin (gross profit), which considers the short-term economic viability of a commercial mango operation. Under the best-case scenario, where both price and yield are assumed to increase by 10%, the gross margin would increase from $5,587/acre to $7,176/acre. Under the worst-case scenario, where both price and yield decrease by 10%, gross margin would decrease from $5,587/acre to $4,147/acre. Changes in yield (keeping the price constant) have a slightly larger impact on gross margin than price changes (keeping yield constant). A 5% increase in yield (base price, $0.41/pound) has a larger impact on gross margin than a 5% increase in the base price (base yield, 18,600 pound). The 5% increase in yield would create an increase in the gross margin of $383, while an increase in the base price would mean that the gross margin would increase by $374. As a reminder, fixed costs are not considered when estimating the gross margin (gross profit).

Table 2. Sensitivity analysis of gross margin per acre for mangos grown in south Florida.

Table 3 presents a similar analysis on the net returns per acre. Under the best-case scenario, where both price and yield are assumed to increase by 10%, net return would increase from $4,487/acre to $6,076/acre. Under the worst-case scenario, where both price and yield are assumed to decrease by 10%, net return would decrease from $4,487/acre to $3,047/acre. Other combinations of changes of prices and yields and their impact on net return per acre are shown in table 3. Yield and price changes can be interpreted in a similar manner to those presented in table 2.

Table 3. Sensitivity analysis of net returns per acre for mangos grown in south Florida.


The average net return obtained from an established mango grove in south Florida is about $4,487/acre, or $0.24/pound. The profitability of mangos in comparison to other cultivated crops makes this tropical fruit crop an attractive option. Some caution is needed because this analysis only considers the profitability of an established grove. We do not consider the cost of establishing a new mango grove, which includes land acquisition and development, planting costs, and amortized capital costs, keeping in mind that it will be 3 to 5 years before any appreciable crop is harvested (Crane et al. 2020). If the land-establishment and financing costs were to be incorporated in the analysis, then net return estimates would change substantially. Thus, caution is needed when using this analysis to make decisions on establishing a new orchard. Another important consideration is that any significant increases in production may lead to market saturation and downward pressure on prices.

Another consideration that mango growers need to recognize is that, although mangos are quite a profitable crop, they are also an alternate bearing crop. Additionally, some of the Florida’s commercial mango varieties are susceptible to anthracnose disease (Crane et. al. 2020). In order for south Florida orchards to remain productive and profitable, growers should replant mango orchards with anthracnose-resistant and high-yield cultivars like ‘Van Dyke’ and ‘Keitt’ when feasible to do so. UF/IFAS Extension also recommends that growers implement best management practices including fruit thinning and pruning, which help to offset the tendency of alternate bearing.


Crane, J. H., C. F. Balerdi and I. Maguire.2020. Mango Growing in the Florida Home Landscape.” HS2/MG216. EDIS 2006 (18).

Goldweber, S. 1967. “Thoughts on the Florida Mango Industry.” Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society. 80:384–387.

Morton, J. 1987. “Mango.” p. 221–239. In Fruits of warm climates. Miami, FL.

Mossler, M., and J. H. Crane. 2009. “Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Mango.” CIR1401/PI052. EDIS 2009 (10)

United States Department of Agriculture - National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA-NASS). 2018. 2017 Census - State Data. Florida Table 37.,_Chapter_1_State_Level/Florida/st12_1_0037_0037.pdf

Western Institute for Food Safety and Security (WIFSS) University of California-Davis. 2016. Mangoes.

Profitability and Cost Estimates for Producing Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) in South Florida (2024)


How much does it cost to produce mango? ›

Mangoes yield per acre in 1 year: 2.5 to 3 tonnes (Cost: Rs 2, 70,000.00).

Are mangoes profitable? ›

Another consideration that mango growers need to recognize is that, although mangos are quite a profitable crop, they are also an alternate bearing crop.

What is the yield of mango per acre? ›

The orchard starts bearing from sixth year onwards and the economic life of a mango tree exceeds 35 years. Yield of fruits varies considerably according to the variety, climatic conditions, plant population etc. On an average, the yield ranges from 5 to 9 t/acre. Grafted plants start bearing early.

Can you grow mangoes in South Florida? ›

There are many mango varieties available in south Florida and many are appropriate for small and large home landscapes.

What is the cost of mango per kg? ›

Fresho Raw Mango (Loose), 1 kg
MRP:Rs 109.87
Price:Rs 83.50
You Save:24%
(Inclusive of all taxes)

What is the cost of 1 kilogram of mango? ›

The cost of 1 kg mangoes is ₹96.

What is the market demand of mango? ›

The global processed mango products market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 6.4% from 2019 to 2025 to reach USD 25.55 billion by 2025.
Report AttributeDetails
Market size value in 2020USD 18.65 billion
Revenue forecast in 2025USD 25.55 billion
Growth RateCAGR of 6.4% from 2019 to 2025
11 more rows

What season of market demand is mango? ›

Peak season runs from May through September, though you can find imported mangoes at your market all-year round. A cup of sliced mango contains 107 calories, 28 grams of carbohydrates, 3 grams of fiber and contains over 20 vitamins and minerals.

Why mangoes are costly this year? ›

The low production is likely to bump up the cost of the pulpy fruit by as much as 60 per cent. Agricultural scientists ThePrint spoke to said that climate change, including soaring temperatures and a reduction in rainfall, has reduced mango crop production by 30 per cent in the last one year.

How many trees of mango do you get per acre? ›

Ideal spacing of Mango trees in an orchard is 10 x 10 meters. With this distance around 82 trees can be planted per acre. In ultra high-density plantation technique, Mango is planted at 3×2 m which accommodates 674 plants per acre.

How many times can you harvest mango in a year? ›

The mangoes can be harvested in three different sessions by judging the maturity of the fruits, i.e. selectively harvesting only matured fruits in a session. fruits from the branches marked red depending upon the type and date of planting.

How long does it take to grow 1 mango? ›

Harvesting Mangoes

A mango tree from seed requires at least five to eight years to bear fruit; a nursery sapling should produce fruit in about four years. The mango fruit takes three to five months to ripen after the tree has flowered.

What is the best mango to grow in South Florida? ›

Kent Mango's

It has an excellent flavor, large size, and very little fiber. Considered by many to be one of the best tasting Florida mangoes. Eat before fruit gets too ripe. Kent's are late season crops.

How long is mango season in South Florida? ›

Florida mangos are available from late May to October depending upon the variety and season. Many people can't wait for mango season to ar- rive! Choose mangos that are fully colored, firm and free of many blemishes. Avoid soft or shriveled fruit which may indicate bruising or immature fruit.

What type of mangos grow in South Florida? ›

Mango (Mangifera indica) is tropical fruit royalty in South Florida, where hundreds of varieties of mangos grow – backyard favorites like Kent, Haden and Glenn, and beloved mangos from India (Alphonse, Mallika), Southeast Asia (Nam Doc Mai), the Caribbean (Julie, Graham), Mexico (Ataulfo) and Central America (Fairchild ...

How much does it cost to import mangoes? ›

Price of imported fresh mango

The average annual price for mango imported by the United States has remained stable in recent years, with a range between $0.93-0.96 USD/kg, which indicates significant stability in the market.

Which mango is most costly? ›

Miyazaki mango Trivia

-Miyazaki mangoes are among the most expensive in the world and sold at ₹2.70 lakh per kilogram in the international market last year, according to the Japanese media reports.

Which mango is highest price in world? ›

Believe it or not, the world's most expensive mango, called Miyazaki mangoes, cost INR 2.7 lakhs per kg.

How many pieces of mango is 1kg? ›

Buy 1 Kg Alphonso Mangoes Online

Hapus Mango is from 175 to 150 grams; there will be 6 Hapus mangoes in a Kilo.

Which mango is most exported? ›

Alphonso, Kesar, Totapuri and Banganpalli are leading export varieties from India. Mango exports primarily take place in three forms: fresh mango, mango pulp, and mango slice.

What is the average price of mangoes sold per day? ›

As per the current market rates, maximum price of Mango is 20000.00 INR/Quintal in Azadpur whereas the minimum rate is 1250.00 INR/Quintal in Vandiperiyar across varieties. The average price is 7008.00 INR/Quintal across varieties.

Which state has highest productivity of mango? ›

Uttar Pradesh

Which country is No 1 in mango production? ›

Almost half of the world's mangoes are cultivated in India alone, with the second-largest source being Indonesia. Although India is the largest producer of mangoes, it accounts for less than 1% of the international mango trade; India consumes most of its own production.

Are mango orchards profitable? ›

Nowadays, one doesn't need huge tracts of land to put up a mango plantation. All that you may ever need is to plunk in about P34,000 for a single mango tree, wait for at least five years and then earn as much as P50,000 per year for every Super Mango tree.

How is mango crop this year 2022? ›

In fiscal year 2022, the volume of mango production in India is estimated to have amounted to around 21 million metric tons. This figure represents a significant increase from a production volume of 16.2 million metric tons in 2012.

Why are mangoes in high demand? ›

Apart from its distinct, fine taste and nutritional value, it also has asignificant contribution to the country's export earnings. Mango has an established international niche markets and ranks as the third most important fruit crop of the country next to pineapple and banana, based on export volume and value.

Why is there a mango shortage? ›

Blame climate change for the potential mango shortage

Battling restrictions on imports, and even yield-depleting pests, as noted by The Print, none of these factors influence mango production as much as climate change.

Which country has the best quality of mangoes? ›

Mango Production by Country 2022
  • India. India is the leading mango producer in the world, producing an estimated 24.7 million tons of mangos annually. This number accounts for almost half of the entire global mango production. ...
  • Indonesia. Indonesia is the second-leading mango producer in the world. ...
  • China.

Why are mangoes so cheap? ›

The Nipa virus scare affected sales and brought down mango prices. Mangoes are dirt cheap this year. And that is because frequent rains and fruit flies combined to a deterioration in the quality of the produce.

What is the lifespan of mango tree? ›

Grafted trees usually produce fruit in 3 to 5 years in dry areas, while seedling trees usually take at least five years to come into bearing. Mango trees can remain in production for 40 years or more.

What is the ideal distance between two mango trees? ›

Spacing varies from 10 m x 10 m, in the dry zones where growth is less, to 12 m x 12 m, in heavy rainfall areas and rich soils where abundant vegetative growth occurs. New dwarf hybrids like Amrapali can be planted at closer spacing of 5m X 5m.

What is the spacing for mango trees? ›

Spacing between mango trees varies from variety to variety and growing environment (dry and wet zone). In dry zone the spacing varies from 10 m x 10 m, because the vegetative growth is limited, while in wet and rich soils the preferred spacing is12 m x 12 m, because of abundant vegetative growth.

What is the best month for harvesting mango? ›

These shoots flower during the next season after accumulating sufficient metabolites necessary for fruit-bud differentiation. Thus the fruits will be ready for harvest in April-May from a plant flowered during October-November. The mango fruits should be harvested at green mature stage.

Which month is best for mango plantation? ›

Planting mango must be done in the beginning of the rainy season. The risk of plant death is comparatively low in the rainy season. Rainwater helps the plant to fix faster. But, the best time for planting mango plant is the month of July to August.

How much water does a mango tree need per day? ›

The young mango plants require 9-12 litre/day/plant water for better growth. The plants of 3-6 years, 6-10 years, 9-12 years and full grown trees require approximately 30-35 litre, 50-60 litre, 80-90 litre and 120 litre/day/plant.

What is the fastest growing mango? ›

The Glenn Mango (Mangifera indica 'Glenn') is a fast growing, semi-dwarf tropical tree that produces delicious mangoes without taking up too much space.

In what temperature does mango grow? ›

Mango trees will grow and produce well in areas with very high temperatures (45 °C). However, when the maximum temperature exceeds 46 °C vegetative growth ceases, especially if it is accompanied by low humidity. For optimum growth and production, the average maximum temperature should be between 27 and 36 °C.

How long does it take for a mango tree to bear fruit in Florida? ›

It typically takes two to three years before a tree is ready to produce fruit, although some trees can produce sooner. Where should I plant my mango tree? A young mango tree planted in full sun with a barrier of mulch.

What is the fastest growing fruit tree in Florida? ›

Peach Tree

Just peach trees have kinds that may reach heights of 10 to 15 feet while remaining only 2 to 3 feet wide. It is one of the fastest growing fruit trees in Florida.

Which mango grows best in Florida? ›

Commercial production of the fruit now spans six continents, and here in Florida is where most of the world's commercial varieties were developed. The Tommy Atkin, Haden, Keitt, and Van Dyke remain the most popular commercial varieties, and they were all selected in Florida less than 100 years ago.

When should I fertilize my mango tree in South Florida? ›

We recommend that no nitrogen fertilizers be applied. A light layer of mulch will protect the root system and as it decomposes, will provide enough nitrogen. After that, fertilize only when your tree is active, from April to September. Do not fertilize at all during the winter.

Is there a mango law in Florida? ›

"It is unlawful for any person to take, carry away, or damage any plants, fruits, plant products, or nursery stock contained within any nursery or private or public property without the consent of the owner of the property or his agent," reads county code section 21-118. A violation could result in a $200 fine.

Are mangoes grown commercially in Florida? ›

There are many varieties of mangos grown in Florida – both commercially and for home gardens.

What fruit grows best in South Florida? ›

There are many citrus trees that grow and produce well in South Florida including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, and tangerines. These citrus fruit trees thrive in the warm South Florida climate, maturing in late winter and early spring, when cold weather in other areas would destroy their fruit.

Are mango trees hard to grow in Florida? ›

Mango trees do not appear to acclimate to cold temperatures, and no significant difference in cold resistance among mango varieties or types has been observed in Florida. In general, mangos in Florida should be planted in the warmest areas of the state, i.e., along the southeast and southwest coasts.

How do you grow a mango tree in Florida? ›

Mangoes grow best in full sun and well-drained soils. At planting, check the root ball carefully and remove circling, pot-bound roots. Young trees should be fertilized every two to three months and older trees two to three times a year in amounts that increase with plant size.

Why do mangoes cost so much? ›

AHMEDABAD: The increase in input costs for farmers coupled with the shortage of mangoes across the country, especially in Saurashtra, have pushed mango prices to a five-year high in the wholesale market.

Who is the biggest importer of mangoes? ›

Trends of Top 10 Importers
CountryImport %
3United States20.33%
7 more rows

What is the market demand for mango? ›

The global processed mango products market size was estimated at USD 17.56 billion in 2019 and is expected to reach USD 18.65 billion in 2020.
Report AttributeDetails
Market size value in 2020USD 18.65 billion
Revenue forecast in 2025USD 25.55 billion
Growth RateCAGR of 6.4% from 2019 to 2025
11 more rows

How much are importing fees? ›

The amount of import tax and duties to be paid depends on the country that the goods are imported from. Duty tax rates are between 0 to 37.5% with the typical rate being 5.63%. A flat rate of 3% applies to e-commerce purchases that are in excess of the US import tax threshold limits.

In which country mango is expensive? ›

Well let us inform you the Miyazaki mango is priced at around ₹2.70 lakh per kg in the international market. What is a Miyazaki mango? The Miyazaki mango was originally grown in Miyazaki city in Japan's Kyushu prefecture.

Which country is the biggest supplier of mango? ›

India is by far the world's largest producer, producing around 20 million tonnes of mango annually.

Which state is the largest producer of mango? ›

The major mango-growing states are Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh ranks first in mango production with a share of 23.47 % and highest productivity.

Which mango is the king of mango? ›

Malda, also known as 'King of Mangoes' in Bihar is completely non fibrous, making it a good pick for chutneys. It is sweet-sour in flavour and is pulpy and delicious.

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